Keyword: "bloodstain pattern analysis"

Casting Two-Dimensional Bloody Shoe Prints from Concrete, Fabric, and Human Skin: A Review of Several Methods with Recommendations

Thomas W. Adair
The recognition of bloody footwear impressions at a crime scene is not an uncommon occurrence for the criminalist. Traditionally these impressions have been recorded by photography or videography either before and/or after chemical enhancement. Photography is an ideal method to begin with since it is considered to be non-destructive to…

Detecting Blood in Soil after Six Years with Luminol

Ron Gabel, Sheri Shimamoto, Ivanie Stene, Tom Adair
In October of 2004 the authors began a study to examine the possibility of detecting blood in soil over extended periods of time. A sample grid was created on a hilltop at the Highlands Ranch Law Enforcement Training Facility located in Douglas County, Colorado (USA). The sample grid is comprised…

Exploring the Relationship Between Finger/Palm Prints and Blood

Rob Bone
The identification of an individual's fingerprint in the blood of a victim of crime is extremely powerful evidence. However, there's very little published literature on the various factors that affect the appearance of a fingerprint with the interaction of blood. One published technical report states that it's not possible to…

Further Validation of the BackTrack™ Computer Program for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis –– Precision and Accuracy

A.L. Carter, M. Illes, K. Maloney, A.B. Yamashita, B. Allen, B. Brown, L. Davidson, G. Ellis, J. Gallant, A. Gradkowski, J. Hignell, S. Jory, P.L. Laturnus, C.C. Moore, R. Pembroke, A. Richard, R. Spenard, C. Stewart
The BackTrack program for bloodstain pattern analysis is an excellent forensic tool that allows bloodstain pattern analysts to simply and quickly analyze patterns of projected bloodstains at bloodletting crime scenes. Although the program has been in use for a number of years, few validation studies have been carried out. In…

One-Sided Impact Spatter and Area-of-Origin Calculations

Andy Maloney, Céline Nicloux, Kevin Maloney, Franck Heron
It is common practice when calculating area of origin from impact spatter to use stains from both "sides" of the pattern ‐ stains to the left and to the right of the blood source. Impact spatter at crime scenes, however, often provides the analyst with bloodstain patterns that are not…

The Reliability of Current Methods of Sequencing Bloodstain Patterns

Terry L. Laber, Michael C. Taylor, Paul E. Kish
Despite the potential value associated with determining the sequence of events from superimposed bloodstain patterns, no formal assessment of the reliability of current methods was found in the published literature. We present here a study of superimposed spatter/transfer patterns on three different substrate surfaces under conditions where the spatter pattern…